Global Environment Crisis in the World
There have been some notable global agreements to help control climate change in the world. The Paris Agreement is one of the most recent agreements between nations that has a main goal of limiting “global warming to well below 2… degrees Celsius.” In order for this agreement to be effective, all the complying countries have to “submit their plans for climate action,” “formulate and submit by 2020 long-term low greenhouse gas emission development strategies,” and continuously “report transparently on actions taken” throughout the 5 year cycles. In 2015 when the Paris Agreement was complete, 197 countries “endorsed the Paris Agreement,” and “190 have solidified their support with formal approval.” Some other actions taken by countries before the Paris Agreement include the Montreal Protocol (1987), the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992), and the Kyoto Protocol (2005). All of which included initiatives to “stop producing substances that damage the ozone layer,” “establish an annual forum… for international discussions aimed at stabilizing the concentration of greenhouse gases,” and requiring “developed countries to reduce emissions by an average of 5 percent below 1990 levels.“
There is a general consensus between governments “on the science behind climate change,” however; “who is most responsible and how to set emissions-reduction goals” is where the lines become blurry. The republican party in the US has been known for the “denial of the legitimacy of climate science.” This can be shown even more so when Donald Trump “withdrew the United States from the Paris Agreement… on November 4, 2020.” The Republican Party is one of the only parties in the world that actively denies climate change. The rest of the world has acknowledge that our every day actions are impacting the climate and that we must take action to reduce emissions, gases, and other harmful substances from going up into the atmosphere.
Global Environment Crisis in Peru
Peru’s geographical location puts the country in a dangerous state when it comes to the environment. Peru sits on the western edge of the Amazon forest, making it home to the lush forests. Most of Peru’s issues “stem from the over-extraction and pollution of natural resources.” As more oil and gas resources are found in geographical areas of the country, the government has to crack down on restrictive policies to control the extraction process. Oil and gas extraction is the largest environmental concern for the country. Extracting these resources “in the Amazon has led to deforestation, soil and water pollution, and the displacement of local indigenous groups.” (Pictured Right) The government and the locals have had numerous occasions of disagreements that have led to protests in the country.
Peru has quite a few environmentalist groups within the country. Some of these organization include the Amazon Center for Environmental Education and Research (ACEER) and the Association of Andean Ecosystems (ECOAN). ACEER has a goal to “develop local and global environmental leaders who work to conserve and restore functioning landscapes in the Amazon Basin and beyond.” While ECOAN’s purpose is “to conserve the flora and fauna species in danger of extinction and threatened ecosystems, through the protection of biological diversity, the sustainable use of natural resources, restoration of habitats and environmental education.” Both these organizations highlight the educational side of these issues and making sure everyone in the community knows how to properly play their part when it comes to keeping the environment in the best shape. Peru also has a huge base on environmental volunteering that takes place through “organizations [who] work with local Peruvian communities to build initiatives that can be maintained well into the future.“
GreenPeace in Peru
Greenpeace is an international organization that started in 1971 when a group of activists sailed out to a small island to stop the US from testing nuclear bombs that could harm different species and potentially set off tsunamis. After that the organization grew and established a mission to use “peaceful protest and creative communication to expose global environmental problems and promote solutions that are essential to a green and peaceful future.” Greenpeace made a notable presence in Peru in 2014 when activists got involved in a “protest for renewable energy at the country’s famed Nazca Lines archaeological site.” The Greenpeace participators had damaged “one of the country’s most important cultural treasures “when activists placed letters on the ground, “the tracks that they left marred that image.” (Pictured Left) The Peruvian government prosecuted all that they found were involved. The organization then had to apologize to the people of Peru and have asked to help repair the damages. However, Peruvian experts said that they “don’t know if we will be able to reverse the damage.”
ACEER. (2021). What We Do. ACEER. https://www.aceer.org/what-we-do
Anywhere. (2021). Environmental Issues in Peru. Anywhere. https://www.anywhere.com/peru/travel-guide/environmental-issues
Associated Press in Lima. (January 20, 2015). Greenpeace identifies four suspects linked to protest at famed Nazca Lines site. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jan/20/greenpeace-lima-nazca-lines-protest-suspects
Chait, Johnathon. (September 27, 2015). Why Are Republicans the Only Climate-Science-Denying Party in the World?. Intelligencer. https://nymag.com/intelligencer/2015/09/whys-gop-only-science-denying-party-on-earth.html
CultureTrav. (April 17, 20217). ECO-FRIENDLY VOLUNTEERING ORGANIZATIONS IN PERU. CultureTrav. https://www.culturetrav.co/2017/04/17/eco-friendly-volunteering-organizations-peru/
Denchak, Melissa. (February 19, 2021) Paris Climate Agreement: Everything You Need to Know. NRDC. https://www.nrdc.org/stories/paris-climate-agreement-everything-you-need-know#:~:text=How%20Many%20Countries%20Are%20in,their%20support%20with%20formal%20approval.
ECOAN. (2019). Conservation. ECOAN. https://www.ecoanperu.org/abouteng.html#mv
Greenpeace. (2021). About Greenpeace. https://www.greenpeace.org/usa/about/
Maizland, Lindsay. (January 25, 2021) Global Climate Agreements: Successes and Failures. Council Foreign Relations. https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/paris-global-climate-change-agreements
United Nations Climate Change. (2021). Paris Agreement. United Nations Climate Change. https://unfccc.int/process-and-meetings/the-paris-agreement/the-paris-agreement